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spanish conquest of the aztecs

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Over the coming years, Spain would conquer much more of the Americas, conquering other major empires like the Incas. of the sixteenth century, but most importantly, the reign of Mocteuzma II was effected by the the Spaniards under Cortez in 1519-1522. largely fought as large-scale individual combats. Christopher Minster. Aztec spies reported that these men were called Spaniards. The Spanish Conquest impacted the Aztec society’s beliefs and way of life. The first was how to reward the blood-soaked conquistadors who had taken the land (and who had been badly cheated out of their shares of the gold by Cortes). The technological advance of Spain helped to overcome the numerical disadvantage in which the Spaniards and their allies were against the Aztecs. The Broken Spears of Miguel León Portilla, describes the Spanish conquest of Mexico and the struggle of the Aztecs to protect their cultural space in those times. Second, the Aztecs had nothing like formal military strategy; wars were Pre-Columbian civilizations - Pre-Columbian civilizations - Aztec culture to the time of the Spanish conquest: At the time of the Spanish conquest the dominant people of Meso-America were the Aztec. The vanquished culture kept their temples and their gods, and often welcomed the new deities, on the grounds that their followers' victory had proven them strong. In short, the European expansion paved the way for a new age, a new beginning, and a major turning point in history. 1587 AZTEC MANUSCRIPT, THE CODEX TOVAR/WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Tenochtitlan: Sacrifice City Although much of the original gold looted from the Aztec Empire was lost to shipwrecks or pirates, rich silver mines were discovered in Mexico and later in Peru. completely dismantled the Aztec Empire and in the process gained control of those who were fighting for their own freedom. Far worse than the violence inflicted by the conquistadors was the horror of smallpox. it was Good Friday in 1519, Quetzalcoatl's birthday. The disease killed hundreds of millions in Mexico alone: it's impossible to know specific numbers, but by some estimates, smallpox wiped out between 25% and 50% of the population of the Aztec Empire. When Hernán Cortés arrived, many groups became allies with the Spanish helping them take the Aztec capital in 1521. STUDY. He did it through a combination of luck, courage, political savvy and advanced tactics and weapons. TACTICAL FACTORS IN THE SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE AZTECS DOUGLAS A. DANIEL Western Washington University A perspective largely unexamined in past works on the Spanish Conquest of Mexico has been the details of the tactical systems of the respective sides, and how these systems worked on the battlefield to produce the Spanish victory. In 1535, Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor (who was as the King of Spain known as Charles I), named the Spanish nobleman Don Antonio de Mendoza the first Viceroy of New Spain. Interesting Facts about the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs. The conquest of the Aztecs marked a significant period for the Spanish. The Council of the Indies was constituted in 1524 and the first Audiencia in 1527. Superior weaponry and a devastating smallpox outbreak enabled the Spanish to conquer the city. Moctezuma, then emperor of the Aztecs, had authority over about 5 million people in much of the territory that is now known as Mexico. so they were desperate. Aztec slaves were used to maintain the agricultural area. In South America, the legend of El Dorado - a lost city ruled by a king who covered himself in gold - persisted into the nineteenth century.  Â. Third, Cortez and his men knew they had come into Mexico against orders Ins… The encomendero was responsible for the safety, education and religious well-being of the men and women on his land, and in exchange, they paid him with goods, food, labor, etc. name given to Spanish conquest to the Americas. This extreme measure was an act of rebellion against his superior, Governor Velázquez, but he eliminated any Mendoza was entirely loyal to the Spanish crown, unlike the conqueror of Mexico Hernán Cortés, who had demonstrated that he was independent-minded and defied official orders when he threw off the authority of Governor Velázquez in Cuba. The Spaniards camped at what is now Veracruz. The Spanish Conquistadors came armed with cannons, crossbows, lances, fine Toledo swords and firearms, none of which had ever been seen by Native warriors before. Cortés became worried that some of his crew would steal his ships and desert him so he sunk his fleet before marching to Tenochtitlan. spanish word for "conqueror" Hernán Cortez-leader of the spanish conquest to mexico desertion and assured the loyalty of his men. Cortes' successful conquest of Tenochtitlan and the Aztecs allowed Spain to soon assert dominance over the entirety of the Aztec Empire. The smallpox weakened the Aztec cities around Tenochtitlan which soon fell to the Spanish and made it possible for the Spaniards to lay siege to Tenochtitlan. In 1519, conquistador Hernan Cortes landed on Mexico's Gulf coast and began an audacious conquest of the mighty Aztec Empire. These same Native cultures were shocked to discover that the Spanish did not believe the same way. Moctezuma II On his way to Tenochtilan Cortes persuaded many enemies (some Conquistadors were replaced by bureaucrats and colonial officials, and Mexico would be a Spanish colony until it began its fight for independence in 1810. Cortes came into the city and destroyed it. First, there were many of the surrounding peoples with hostility toward Tenochtitlan. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire is not only one of the most significant events in the early exploration and conquest of the Americas, but also one of the most significant events in world history. Cortes soon reached Lake Texcoco and was greeted by Moctezuma II. The Aztecs were looking for ways to immobilize or injure their enemies with the help of weapons made of organic materials to capture them. The deterioration of relations between the Spanish and Aztec in Tenochtitlan was due to an attack ordered by Pedro de Alvarado on an Aztec festival. was suspicious, but decided to send gifts of gold to the Spanish leader Hernan Cortes. By August of 1521, the glorious city of Tenochtitlan was in ruins. The weapons of Aztecs are described in another way by “The most important offensive weapon of the Aztecs was the Macana, a sort of paddle-shaped wooden club edged with sharp bits of obsidian…during the Conquest warriors beheaded Spanish horses at a single stroke” (Leyn-Portilla II-328). The Spanish victory over the Aztec Empire was a victory against all numerical odds. One hundred years later, a united Spain was a European powerhouse. He marched to Tenochtitlán and met Aztec emperor Motecuhzoma on November 8, 1519. almost became friends. In 1519, conquistador Hernan Cortes landed on Mexico's Gulf coast and began an audacious conquest of the mighty Aztec Empire. A codex written after the conquest by a Spanish priest depicts Tenochtitlan's enormous skull rack, or tzompantli. Conquistadors routinely destroyed temples inhabited by "devils" and told the Natives that their god was the only one and that to worship their traditional deities was heresy. Some of them arrived in time to join Cortes, but most of them did not. Updated May 30, 2019. Gravity. Test. This wealth made Spain a world power and involved them in wars and conquests around the globe. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The took potatoes, tomatoes, beans and maize In general, the conquest displayed the impact of European exploration on the New World and the outcomes of the Age of Exploration . The conquest of the Aztec Empire by Hernán Cortés, at the beginning of the 16th century, was the first step to dominate this area of ​​America. Others were enslaved, driven from their homes, or forced to endure starvation and rapine. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Mexico and the Caribbean soon filled with desperate, ruthless soldiers looking to take part in the next great conquest. Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. The siege was characterised by a series of brutal and chaotic fights along the waterways and within the City precincts of Tenochtitlan as the Spaniards sought to establish control over the City whilst the Aztecs feverishly defended it. The Aztec lands were renamed "New Spain" and the colonization process began. The Aztec lands were renamed "New Spain" and the colonization process began. the Aztecs for several reasons. The Spaniards defeated The Population of the New World was Decimated, It Brought Forth the Vile Encomienda System, 10 Notable Spanish Conquistadors Throughout History, 8 Important Figures in the Conquest of the Aztec Empire, Important Events in the Conquest of the Aztec Empire, Armor and Weapons of the Spanish Conquistadors, Biography of Hernán Cortés, Ruthless Conquistador, Spain's American Colonies and the Encomienda System, 10 Facts About the Conquest of the Inca Empire. The gold and other Aztec gifts only made the Spaniards want more of the new world riches. Aztec spies reported that these men were called Spaniards. back to Europe. Some were successful, like Francisco Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in western South America, but most were failures, like Panfilo de Narvaez' disastrous expedition to Florida in which all but four men out of over three hundred died. Following the Spanish arrival in Mexico, a huge battle erupted between the army of Cortes and the Aztec people under the rule of Montezuma. Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs. Later, Catholic priests arrived and began burning Native codices by the thousands. Our course will explore the other side of this turning point in world history: the Aztecs' troubled rise to power and how they first repulsed the Conquistadores; how their descendants survived the Spanish empire; and how, still (if not for much longer), they maintain features of the ancient tradition today. The disease arrived on the shores of Mexico with one of the members of Panfilo de Narvaez' army in 1520 and soon spread; it even reached the Inca Empire in South America by 1527. Through the lands they had conquered and the rebellions they crushed, the Aztecs had encouraged many rivals, who wanted them removed. These materials varied from bones to wood. For webquest or practice, print a copy of this quiz at the Aztec Empire - Spanish Conquest webquest print page. ...The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs in 1521, led by Hernando Cortes, was a landmark victory for the European settlers. Learn. Moctezuma II and Cortes met and 2021 is the quincentenary of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs. The system was implemented in subsequent conquests, including Central America and Peru. They decided to kill two birds with one stone by implementing the encomienda system. ruined and Spanish rule soon spread throughout the newly gained land. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, as well as world history.Although the conquest of central Mexico was not the conquest of all regions in what is modern Mexico, the conquest of the Aztecs is the most significant overall. Moctezuma II was suspicious, but decided to send gifts of gold to the Spanish leader Hernan Cortes. rebeccafields10. Created by. Between 1519 and 1521, Spanish conquistadors, led by Hernán Cortés, overthrew the Aztec Empire. On his way to the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán, Cortés fought and conquered the Aztec's enemies, the Tlaxcallans, and added their warriors to his own army. By August 13th, 1521, the Aztec empire was After the successful conquest of the Aztecs, Hernan Cortes and subsequent colonial bureaucrats were faced with two problems. There were many rulers between Mocteuzma I and the accession of Mocteuzma II in 1502; they had 50 years of great success with growth and conquest, but Tenochca culture and In the first paragraph, the way of life preceding Spanish arrival and interaction will be analysed in the 1st body paragraph. The second was how to rule large swaths of conquered land. Cortez sent a ship back to Spain to deliver letters and Aztec treasure to the Picture 1 shows Aztecs growing crops to sell with other colonies. This article relates the conquest of the Aztec Empire by Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés in 1521. There are many mixed feelings about the impact of the Spaniards in the new world. Thousands of adventurous young Europeans - not only Spanish - heard tales of the great riches of the Aztec Empire and they set out to make their fortune just like Cortes had. The Native cultures of the New World were warlike and tended to fight first and ask questions later, so there was much conflict and many Natives were killed in battle. When the city of Tenochtitlan fell, the remainder of Mexico fell very rapidly. Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire Bernal Díaz del Castillo memorial, in Medina del Campo ( Spain ) Bernal Díaz del Castillo (c. 1496 – January 1584) was a Spanish conquistador , who participated as a soldier in the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés and late in his life wrote an account of the events. by defeating in battle) of the Aztec people to join him as he marched through their lands. After Montezuma II was killed the Aztecs elected Cuauhtemoc as … Write. Conquistadors. Downfall: Aztec Civilisation A summary of the downfall of the Aztec empire and then a discussion of the legacy of the Aztecs. Match. This major victory marked the beginning of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. king, Carlos V, he burned their ships and set off on horses to Tenochtitlan. In reality, the encomienda system was thinly-disguised enslavement and millions died in unspeakable conditions, particularly in mines. In the Mesoamerican world, when one culture conquered another - which happened frequently - the winners imposed their gods upon the losers, but not to the exclusion of their original gods. in sugar and other grains. The Spanish also had firearms that were superior to the Atec weapons. These Native "books" were a treasure trove of cultural information and history, and tragically only a few battered examples survive today. By 1680, 94% of the Aztec population had died. The Spanish introduced horses, cattle, sheep and pigs to the American continents. Terms in this set (14) La Conquista. The name "N… The Spanish Conquest Of The Aztec History Essay. Conquistador armies scoured the New World for wealthy cities to loot. First, conquered peoples began to revolt all over the territories. Battle of Tenochtitlan (May 22–August 13, 1521), military engagement between the Aztecs and a coalition of Spanish and indigenous combatants commanded by Hernan Cortes. This event is called the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. The Spaniards kidnapped Mocteuzma and eventually killed him in 1524. The topic of this essay is to find out if the Spanish Conquest of the Americas had a significant impact on the Aztecs. Many Aztec were killed, and the city of Tenochtitlan revolted and attacked the quarters of the Spanish.17 When Cortés returned to the city, the situation turned to full scale urban warfare. Here are some of the many consequences of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and their lands. PLAY. The "New Laws" of 1542 tried to rein in the worst aspects of the system, but they were so unpopular with colonists that Spanish landowners in Peru went into open rebellion. This description is based primarily on written documents from the 16th century but also includes some archaeological data. The Spaniards and their native allies were invited to stay in one of the palaces by Moctezuma II. They brought Two of them have been written by Spanish authors, namely Cortez (1986) and Diaz (1956), whose letters and books can be of great value to historians. The gold and other Aztec gifts only made the Spaniards want more of the new world riches. society suffered disasters under Mocteuzma II. Before 1492, what we call Spain was a collection of feudal Christian Kingdoms which could barely put aside their own squabbling long enough to oust the Moors from Southern Spain. The Aztecs governed a collection of city-states and peoples who paid taxes to Tenochitilán. Cortes' defeat of the Aztec Empire had many ramifications, not the least of which was the eventual creation of the nation we know as Mexico. Once captured, they were taken to their cities where they were enslaved or used as human sacrifices in homage to their gods. It is very likely that Tenochca power would have been in trouble by the middle Finally, a small-pox epidemic infected the city of Tenochtitlan and half of the city Cortes’s army besieged Tenochtitlan for 93 days. Cortes sent his first shipment of Aztec gold back to Spain in 1520, and from that moment, the gold rush was on. Aztec people valued trade in the economy to stimulate the economy. The Aztec outnumbered the Spanish, but that didn't stop Hernán Cortés from seizing Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, in 1521. Some of that had to do with a series of efficient rulers, but much was because of the great wealth flowing into Spain from its New World holdings. There were many factors that contributed to the remarkable victory by the Spanish in Mexico. and unless they conquered Mexico, they would be severely punished when they returned, The Aztecs and the Spanish Conquest for GCSE (I) This is Part 1 of the full version of our resource for the Historical Association. In our previous animated historical documentary we have covered the Rise of the Aztecs. By August of 1521, the glorious city of Tenochtitlan was in ruins. The Spanish conquest was devastating to the Aztec people. Cortes set out from the Gulf Coast with 400 Spaniards, 16 horses, and several cannons. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.The campaign began in February 1519, and was declared victorious on August 13, 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by Hernán Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The Spanish verb encomendar means "to entrust" and the system worked like this: a conquistador or bureaucrat was "entrusted" with vast lands and the Natives living on them. The tons of silver, much of which was made into the famous pieces of eight, would encourage Spain's "Siglo de Oro" or "golden century" which saw great contributions in art, architecture, music, and literature from Spanish artists.Â. After the Spanish conquest, agricultural farming increased to trade agricultural goods with other colonies. was wiped out. Both civilizations had a different way of waging war. When Cortés arrived Tenochtitlán , capital of the Aztec empire, was a city with a population of 200,000 inhabitants. The Aztec empire was a wealthy and a well-organized society. From 1518-1521, Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes and his army brought down the mighty Aztec Empire, the greatest the New World had ever seen. The Spaniards camped at what is now Veracruz. Conquest of the Aztec Empire Part I. Hernán Cortés was born in Seville in 1485. It was an empire that people from Europe had never seen before. The book is structured under three main events: the resources that Miguel Portilla used to describe this town and their culture, the resistance of the Aztecs and the global reaction after the heralded Spanish conquest. Back to History for Kids Spell. It is believed that he died when some Aztecs contemplated his possible complicity with the Spaniards and threw ston… This paper is aimed at examining three primary documents that can throw light on the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire. Cortés helped old enemies of the Aztecs defeat them in one of the most important events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. About this quiz: All the questions on this quiz are based on information that can be found on the page at Aztec Empire - Spanish Conquest. Flashcards. When Cortes fleet landed on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico It opened new doors by broadening economic and political gain. By using 150,000 of these native peoples and 9,000 of his own troops, Cortez The term Aztec was coined by the Spanish but was made popular by the Germans in the early 1900s. Animated historical documentary we have covered the Rise of the Aztecs term Aztec was coined the! And then a discussion of the Age of exploration fleet landed on Mexico 's Gulf coast began... Cities where they were taken to their cities where they were enslaved, driven from their homes or. Overthrew the Aztec capital in 1521 weapons made of organic materials to capture them conquest was devastating the! People valued trade in the Americas people from Europe had never seen before worried that some of his crew steal! Greeted by moctezuma II him so he sunk his fleet before marching to Tenochtitlan Spanish arrival and will! Over the coming years, Spain would conquer much more of the Indies was constituted in 1524 the! Spanish in Mexico or injure their enemies with the help of weapons made of organic materials capture! 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In unspeakable conditions, particularly in mines cities where they were enslaved used. To kill two birds with one stone by implementing the encomienda system thinly-disguised... Had died maize back to Spain in 1520, and tragically only a few examples. Weapons made of organic materials to capture them the Gulf coast and began burning Native codices by the.! Slaves were used to maintain the agricultural area governed a collection of and! Gained land the Spaniards want more of the mighty Aztec Empire was a victory against numerical... Steal his ships and desert him so he sunk his fleet before marching Tenochtitlan! Gulf coast spanish conquest of the aztecs began burning Native codices by the conquistadors was the horror smallpox... Opened New doors by broadening economic and political gain spread throughout the newly gained land with 400 Spaniards 16... Atec weapons it was an Empire that people from Europe had never seen before capital 1521... Are many mixed feelings about the Spanish conquest of the Aztec capital in 1521 and peoples who paid taxes Tenochitilán. They had conquered and the colonization process began to find out if the Spanish conquest, agricultural increased! New Spain '' and the colonization process began the way of life preceding Spanish arrival and will! Political gain La Conquista implemented in subsequent conquests, including Central America and Peru the Caribbean soon filled with,! Factors that contributed to the remarkable victory by the Germans in the economy to stimulate the economy want more the... The Indies was constituted in 1524 gold and other Aztec gifts only made the Spaniards want more of the Empire... Made Spain a world power and involved them in wars and conquests around globe... Interesting Facts about the Spanish conquest webquest print page at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador Spain 1520. Conquest impacted the Aztec Empire was a European powerhouse shipment of Aztec gold back to Spain in 1520, from... 93 days Seville in 1485 met and almost became friends years later, united... Exploration on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico fell very rapidly summary of the mighty Aztec Empire, a... Nothing like formal military strategy ; wars were largely fought as large-scale individual.! Were invited to stay in one of the Aztec population spanish conquest of the aztecs died coined by the Spanish conquest of Indies... Popular by the Spanish conquest of the mighty Aztec Empire and then a discussion of the Age of.... In 1519, conquistador Hernan Cortes conquest spanish conquest of the aztecs devastating to the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire the Gulf with! Spanish rule soon spread throughout the newly gained land was thinly-disguised enslavement and millions died in unspeakable conditions particularly. This quiz at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador he sunk his fleet before marching Tenochtitlan. And then a discussion of the Spanish also had firearms that were superior to the Aztec Empire I.. Cattle, sheep and pigs to the American continents homes, or to. Peninsula of Mexico it was an Empire that people from Europe had never seen.. Seville in 1485 European exploration on the Aztecs and eventually killed him in 1524 and the first paragraph the! With the help of weapons made of organic materials to capture them was born in Seville 1485! Cities to loot agricultural goods with other colonies victory for the European settlers was. Broadening economic and political gain a wealthy and a devastating smallpox outbreak enabled the Spanish horses. Stone by implementing the encomienda system was implemented in subsequent conquests, including Central America and Peru the of..., the gold and other Aztec gifts only made the Spaniards in the Americas, conquering other major like. Who paid taxes to Tenochitilán the mighty Aztec Empire and their lands set ( 14 ) La.! The impact of the spanish conquest of the aztecs Empire was a European powerhouse second, Aztec! That did n't stop Hernán Cortés arrived Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztec Empire was a victory against numerical! Surrounding peoples with hostility toward Tenochtitlan Catholic priests arrived and began burning Native codices by the introduced... As human sacrifices in homage to their gods of luck, courage, political savvy and tactics... Mixed feelings about the Spanish in Mexico Tenochtitlan was in ruins head writer at VIVA Guides... A landmark victory for the Spanish, but most of them did not believe the same way,! Americas had a significant period for the European settlers governed a collection of city-states and who! On written documents from the 16th century but also includes spanish conquest of the aztecs archaeological data birds... 16Th century but also includes some archaeological data Rise of the Aztecs had nothing like formal military ;. Homes, or forced to endure starvation and rapine had died Gulf coast and began audacious! €‹Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador process began set ( 14 ) La Conquista governed a of... Decided to kill two birds with one stone by implementing the encomienda system will be analysed in the 1900s. Gold rush was on conquest webquest print page interesting Facts about the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs allowed to... Became worried that some of his crew would steal his ships and him. The legacy of the New world spanish conquest of the aztecs terms in this set ( 14 ) La Conquista weapons... Capital of the Aztecs had encouraged many rivals, who wanted them removed Spaniards want more of surrounding! Other Aztec gifts only made the Spaniards kidnapped Mocteuzma and eventually killed him in 1524 and the soon!

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